Muinais-Karjala : Novgorodin tasavalta (päivitys: Novgorodin aluejako)


”The city state of Novgorod had developed procedures of governance that held a large measure of democratic participation far in advance of the rest of Europe. From the mouth of a Kremlin official in Novgorod, before Moscow came and took over, the people of Novgorod could decide for themselves how Novgorod was run, and who ran it. The people had the power to elect city officials and they even had the power to elect and fire the prince. The Chronicle writer then goes on to describe a “town meeting” where these decisions would have been made, which included people from all social classes ranging from the Posadniki (Magistrates), to the Chernye Liundi (literally, the black folks) or the lowest class. The precise constitution of the medieval Novgorodian Republic is uncertain, although traditional histories have created the image of a highly institutionalized network of veches (public assemblies) and a government of posadniks (mayors), tysyatskys (”thousandmen,” originally the head of the town militia, but later a judicial and commercial official), other members of aristocratic families, and the archbishops of Novgorod”. – WIKI/Novgorod Republic

1500-luvulla (itse kartta on 1853)

Novgorodin aluejako eli ”pyatinas” 1500-luvulla (itse kartta on 1853), kupla Pielisen pogostasta


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